Referencias

Perdidas de voltaje en sistemas de 12,24,48 y 120 vdc
Utiliza estas tablas para determinar la distancia maxima de la fuente de e enrgia hacia la carga con una caida maxima de voltaje del 2%. Si puedes permitir una caida de voltaje de 4% entonces la distancia seria del doble. No debes de excederte mas del 2% de caida entre las fotoceldas y baterias. Una caida del 4% o 5% es aceptable entre las baterias y circuitos de iluminación. Ten en cuenta que arreglos fotovoltaicos con voltajes de 24 vdc se pueden colocar mas lejos que los arreglos a 12 vdc del mismo tamaño debido al menor amperaje.

Maxima longitud de cable en sistemas a 12 vdc
AMPS #14 #12 #10 #8 #6 #4 #2 1/0 2/0 4/0
Caida de voltaje de 2%
1A 45 ft 70 ft 115 ft 180 ft 290 ft 456 ft 720 ft - - -
2A 22.5 ft 35 ft 57.5 ft 90 ft 145 ft 228 ft 360 ft 580 ft 720 ft 1060 ft
4A 10 ft 17.5 ft 27.5 ft 45 ft 72.5 ft 114 ft 180 ft 290 ft 360 ft 580 ft
6A 7.5 ft 12 ft 17.5 ft 30 ft 47.5 ft 75 ft 120 ft 193 ft 243 ft 380 ft
8A 5.5 ft 8.5 ft 15 ft 22.5 ft 35.5 ft 57 ft 90 ft 145 ft 180 ft 290 ft
10A 4.5 ft 7 ft 12 ft 18 ft 28.5 ft 45.5 ft 72.5 ft 115 ft 145 ft 230 ft
15A 3 ft 4.5 ft 7 ft 12 ft 19 ft 30 ft 48 ft 76.5 ft 96 ft 150 ft
20A 2 ft 3.5 ft 5.5 ft 9 ft 14.5 ft 22.5 ft 36 ft 57.5 ft 72.5 ft 116 ft
25A 1.8 ft 2.8 ft 4.5 ft 7 ft 11.5 ft 18 ft 29 ft 46 ft 58 ft 92 ft
30A 1.5 ft 2.4 ft 3.5 ft 6 ft 9.5 ft 15 ft 24 ft 38.5 ft 48.5 ft 77 ft
40A - - 2.8 ft 4.5 ft 7 ft 11.5 ft 18 ft 29 ft 36 ft 56 ft
50A - - 2.3 ft 3.6 ft 5.5 ft 9 ft 14.5 ft 23 ft 29 ft 46 ft
100A - - - - 2.9 ft 4.6 ft 7.2 ft 11.5 ft 14.5 ft 23 ft
150A - - - - - - 4.8 ft 7.7 ft 9.7 ft 15 ft
200A - - - - - - 3.6 ft 5.8 ft 7.3 ft 11 ft
Maxima longitud de cable en sistemas a 24 vdc
AMPS #14 #12 #10 #8 #6 #4 #2 1/0 2/0 4/0
Caida de voltaje de 2%
1A 90 ft 140 ft 230 ft 360 ft 580 ft 912 ft 1440 ft - - -
2A 45 ft 70 ft 115 ft 180 ft 290 ft 456 ft 720 ft 1160 ft 1440 ft 2120 ft
4A 20 ft 35 ft 55 ft 90 ft 145 ft 228 ft 360 ft 580 ft 720 ft 1160 ft
6A 15 ft 24 ft 35 ft 60 ft 95 ft 150 ft 240 ft 386 ft 486 ft 760 ft
8A 11 ft 17 ft 30 ft 45 ft 71 ft 114 ft 180 ft 290 ft 360 ft 580 ft
10A 9 ft 14 ft 24 ft 36 ft 57 ft 91 ft 145 ft 230 ft 290 ft 460 ft
15A 6 ft 9 ft 14 ft 24 ft 38 ft 60 ft 96 ft 153 ft 192 ft 300 ft
20A 4 ft 7 ft 11 ft 18 ft 29 ft 45 ft 72 ft 115 ft 145 ft 232 ft
25A 3.6 ft 5.6 ft 9 ft 14 ft 23 ft 36 ft 58 ft 92 ft 116 ft 184 ft
30A 3 ft 4.8 ft 7 ft 12 ft 19 ft 30 ft 48 ft 77 ft 97 ft 154 ft
40A - - 5.6 ft 9 ft 14 ft 23 ft 36 ft 58 ft 72 ft 112 ft
50A - - 4.6 ft 7.2 ft 11 ft 18 ft 29 ft 46 ft 58 ft 92 ft
100A - - - - 5.8 ft 9.2 ft 14.4 ft 23 ft 29 ft 46 ft
150A - - - - - - 9.6 ft 15.4 ft 19.4 ft 30 ft
200A - - - - - - 7.2 ft 11.6 ft 14.6 ft 22 ft
Maxima longitud de cable en sistemas a 48 vdc
AMPS #14 #12 #10 #8 #6 #4 #2 1/0 2/0 4/0
Caida de voltaje de 2%
1A 180 ft 280 ft 460 ft 720 ft 1160 ft 1824 ft 2880 ft - - -
2A 90 ft 140 ft 230 ft 360 ft 580 ft 912 ft 1440 ft 2320 ft 2880 ft 4240 ft
4A 40 ft 70 ft 110 ft 180 ft 290 ft 456 ft 720 ft 1160 ft 1440 ft 2320 ft
6A 30 ft 48 ft 70 ft 120 ft 190 ft 300 ft 480 ft 772 ft 972 ft 1520 ft
8A 22 ft 34 ft 60 ft 90 ft 142 ft 228 ft 360 ft 580 ft 720 ft 1160 ft
10A 18 ft 28 ft 48 ft 72 ft 114 ft 182 ft 290 ft 460 ft 580 ft 920 ft
15A 12 ft 18 ft 28 ft 48 ft 72 ft 120 ft 192 ft 306 ft 384 ft 600 ft
20A 8 ft 14 ft 22 ft 36 ft 58 ft 90 ft 144 ft 230 ft 290 ft 464 ft
25A 7.2 ft 11.2 ft 18 ft 28 ft 46 ft 72 ft 116 ft 184 ft 232 ft 368 ft
30A 6 ft 9.6 ft 14 ft 24 ft 38 ft 60 ft 96 ft 154 ft 194 ft 308 ft
40A - - 11.2 ft 18 ft 28 ft 46 ft 72 ft 116 ft 144 ft 224 ft
50A - - 9.2 ft 14.4 ft 22 ft 36 ft 58 ft 92 ft 116 ft 184 ft
100A - - - - 11.6 ft 18.4 ft 28.8 ft 46 ft 58 ft 92 ft
150A - - - - - - 19.2 ft 30.8 ft 38.8 ft 60 ft
200A - - - - - - 14.4 ft 23.2 ft 29.2 ft 44 ft
Maxima longitud de cable en sistemas a 120 vdc
AMPS #14 #12 #10 #8 #6 #4 #2 1/0 2/0 4/0
Caida de voltaje de 2%
1A 450 ft 700 ft 1150 ft 1800 ft 2900 ft 4560 ft 7200 ft - - -
2A 225 ft 350 ft 575 ft 900 ft 1450 ft 2280 ft 3600 ft 5800 ft 7200 ft 10600 ft
4A 100 ft 175 ft 275 ft 450 ft 725 ft 1140 ft 1800 ft 2900 ft 3600 ft 5800 ft
6A 75 ft 120 ft 175 ft 300 ft 475 ft 750 ft 1200 ft 1930 ft 2430 ft 3800 ft
8A 55 ft 85 ft 150 ft 225 ft 355 ft 570 ft 900 ft 1450 ft 1800 ft 2900 ft
10A 45 ft 70 ft 120 ft 180 ft 285 ft 455 ft 725 ft 1150 ft 1450 ft 2300 ft
15A 30 ft 45 ft 70 ft 120 ft 190 ft 300 ft 480 ft 765 ft 960 ft 1500 ft
20A 20 ft 35 ft 55 ft 90 ft 145 ft 225 ft 360 ft 575 ft 725 ft 1160 ft
25A 18 ft 28 ft 45 ft 70 ft 115 ft 180 ft 290 ft 460 ft 580 ft 920 ft
30A 15 ft 24 ft 35 ft 60 ft 95 ft 150 ft 240 ft 385 ft 485 ft 770 ft
40A - - 28 ft 48 ft 70 ft 115 ft 180 ft 290 ft 360 ft 560 ft
50A - - 23 ft 36 ft 55 ft 90 ft 145 ft 230 ft 290 ft 460 ft
100A - - - 18 ft 29 ft 46 ft 72 ft 115 ft 145 ft 230 ft
150A - - - - - - 48 ft 77 ft 97 ft 150 ft
200A - - - - - - 36 ft 58 ft 73 ft 110 ft
Insolación en México

Apéndice A: Insolación global en México

Tabla A-1.  Insolación global media inclinacíon a a latitud en México en kWh/m2-Día

Fuentes: Actualizacion de los Mapas de Irradiacion Global solar en la Republica Mexicana (R.  Almanza S.  ,E.  Cajigal R., J.  Barrientos A.  1997)

Reportes de insolación de México.  Southwest Technology Development Institute, NMSU, 1999

 

Estado

Ciudad

Ene

Feb

Mar

Abr

May

Jun

Jul

Ago

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dic

Min

Max

Med

Aguascalientes

Aguascalientes

4.5

5.2

5.9

6.6

7.2

6.3

6.1

5.9

5.7

5.1

4.8

4.0

4.0

7.2

5.6

Baja CaliforniaSur

La Paz

4.4

5.5

6.0

6.6

6.5

6.6

6.3

6.2

5.9

5.8

4.9

4.2

4.2

6.6

5.7

Baja California

Mexicali

4.1

4.4

5.0

5.6

6.6

7.3

7.0

6.1

6.1

5.5

4.5

3.9

3.9

7.3

5.5

Baja California

San Javier

4.2

4.6

5.3

6.2

6.5

7.1

6.4

6.3

6.4

5.1

4.7

3.7

3.7

7.1

5.5

Baja California Sur

 S.  José del Cabo

5.0

5.6

5.8

5.9

6.9

6.1

5.8

6.2

5.8

5.8

5.2

4.4

4.5

6.3

5.7

Campeche

Campeche

4.8

5.7

6.0

5.3

5.4

4.9

4.9

5.3

5.2

5.4

5.0

4.3

4.4

6.0

5.2

Chiapas

Arriaga

5.1

5.4

5.5

5.9

5.6

5.2

5.9

5.5

5.1

5.3

5.1

4.7

4.7

5.9

5.4

Chiapas

Juan Aldama

4.4

5.1

4.9

4.5

4.5

4.1

4.4

4.5

4.1

4.3

4.4

4.2

4.1

5.1

4.5

Chiapas

San Cristóbal

4.0

4.3

4.5

4.5

4.8

4.7

5.4

5.3

4.6

4.2

3.9

3.7

3.7

5.4

4.5

Chiapas

Tapachula

5.4

4.9

4.8

4.6

4.7

4.7

5.2

5.1

4.6

4.1

4.3

4.1

4.1

5.4

4.7

Chiapas

Tuxtla Gutiérrez

3.8

4.4

4.6

4.8

5.3

5.1

5.4

5.3

4.9

4.4

4.1

3.7

3.7

5.4

4.7

Chihuahua

Chihuahua

5.8

6.4

6.8

6.9

6.9

6.4

6.4

6.5

6.8

6.8

6.0

5.2

5.3

8.9

5.9

Chihuahua

Guachochi

3.3

3.5

3.9

4.4

5.1

5.3

5.4

5.6

5.7

5.1

4.9

4.4

3.3

6.9

6.4

Chihuahua

Cd.  Juárez

6.0

7.2

7.3

7.3

6.9

6.5

6.3

6.5

6.8

7.4

6.6

5.9

5.9

7.4

6.7

Coahuila

Piedras Negras

3.1

3.6

4.2

4.5

4.8

6.0

6.7

6.3

4.9

4.1

3.3

2.9

2.9

6.7

4.5

Coahuila

Saltillo

3.8

4.2

4.8

5.1

5.6

5.9

5.9

5.6

5.2

4.4

3.6

3.3

3.3

5.9

4.8

Colima

Colima

4.4

5.1

5.3

5.8

6.0

5.2

4.9

5.0

4.6

4.4

4.4

3.9

3.9

6.0

4.9

D.F.

Tacubaya

5.4

6.0

6.4

5.9

5.3

5.1

4.5

4.9

4.5

4.8

5.2

5.2

4.5

6.4

5.3

Durango

Durango

4.4

5.4

6.5

7.0

7.5

6.8

6.0

5.6

5.7

5.1

4.8

3.9

3.9

7.5

5.7

Guanajuato

Guanajuato

4.4

5.1

6.1

6.3

6.6

6.0

6.0

5.9

5.8

5.2

4.8

4.6

4.4

6.6

5.6

Guerrero

Acapulco

4.8

5.3

6.1

5.9

5.6

5.1

5.3

5.4

4.9

5.2

5.0

4.7

4.7

6.1

5.3

Guerrero

Aguas Blancas

5.8

5.9

6.0

5.8

5.8

5.4

5.6

5.8

5.5

5.6

5.5

5.5

5.4

6.0

5.7

Guerrero

Chilpancingo

4.1

4.5

4.9

5.2

5.2

5.2

5.1

5.1

4.7

4.4

4.1

3.8

3.8

5.2

4.7

Hidalgo

Pachuca

4.6

5.1

5.6

6.8

6.0

5.7

5.9

5.8

5.3

4.9

4.6

4.2

4.2

6.8

5.4

Jalisco

Colotlán

4.6

5.7

6.5

7.5

8.2

6.6

5.8

5.6

5.8

5.3

4.9

4.1

4.1

8.2

5.9

Jalisco

Guadalajara

4.6

5.5

6.3

7.4

7.7

5.9

5.3

5.3

5.2

4.9

4.8

4.0

4.0

7.7

5.6

Jalisco

L.  de Moreno

4.5

5.3

6.1

6.7

7.2

6.1

5.8

5.6

5.5

5.0

4.7

4.0

4.0

7.2

5.5

Jalisco

Puerto Vallarta

5.2

5.7

6.0

5.8

5.7

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.5

5.6

5.2

4.7

4.7

6.0

5.5

México

Chapingo

4.5

5.1

5.6

5.8

5.9

5.4

5.2

5.2

5.0

4.7

4.6

3.9

3.9

5.9

5.1

Michoacán

Morelia

4.2

4.9

5.5

5.8

5.9

5.2

5.0

5.1

4.9

4.6

4.3

3.7

3.7

5.9

4.9

Nayarit

Tepic

3.9

4.3

4.8

5.5

6.1

5.3

4.9

5.3

4.4

4.4

4.0

4.8

3.9

6.1

4.8

Nuevo León

Monterrey

3.2

3.6

4.1

4.3

4.8

5.5

6.1

5.6

5.0

3.8

3.3

3.0

3.0

6.1

4.4

Oaxaca

Oaxaca

4.9

5.7

5.8

5.5

6.0

5.4

5.9

5.6

5.0

4.9

4.8

4.4

4.4

6.0

5.3

Oaxaca

Salina Cruz

5.4

6.3

6.6

6.4

6.1

5.0

5.6

5.9

5.2

5.9

5.7

5.2

5.0

6.6

5.8

Puebla

Puebla

4.9

5.5

6.2

6.4

6.1

5.7

5.8

5.8

5.2

5.0

4.7

4.4

4.4

6.4

5.5

Querétaro

Querétaro

5.0

5.7

6.4

6.8

6.9

6.4

6.4

6.4

6.3

5.4

5.0

4.4

4.4

6.9

5.9

QuintanaRoo

Chetumal

3.9

4.7

5.4

5.7

5.3

4.7

4.9

5.0

4.5

4.4

4.0

3.7

3.7

5.7

4.7

QuintanaRoo

Cozumel

3.9

4.6

5.3

5.7

5.2

4.8

4.9

4.9

4.6

4.4

4.0

3.8

3.8

5.7

4.7

San Luis Potosí

Río Verde

3.6

4.0

4.6

4.9

5.4

5.6

5.8

5.8

5.1

4.3

3.7

3.3

3.3

5.8

4.7

San Luis Potosí

San Luis Potosí

4.3

5.3

5.8

6.4

6.3

6.1

6.4

6.0

5.5

4.7

4.2

3.7

3.7

6.4

5.4

Sinaloa

Culiacán

3.6

4.2

4.8

5.4

6.2

6.2

5.4

5.1

5.2

4.6

4.2

3.4

3.4

6.2

4.9

Sinaloa

Los Mochis

4.9

5.4

5.8

5.9

5.8

5.8

5.3

5.5

5.5

5.8

4.9

4.3

4.3

5.9

5.4

Sinaloa

Mazatlan

3.9

4.8

5.4

5.7

5.7

5.6

4.8

4.9

4.7

5.0

4.5

3.9

3.9

5.7

4.9

Sonora

Ciudad Obregón

5.8

6.4

6.8

6.9

6.9

6.7

6.4

6.5

6.8

7.3

6.0

5.2

5.3

7.26

6.5

Sonora

Guaymas

4.5

5.7

6.5

7.2

7.3

6.8

5.9

5.8

6.3

5.9

5.1

5.6

4.5

7.3

6.0

Sonora

Hermosillo

4.0

4.6

5.4

6.6

8.3

8.6

6.9

6.6

6.7

6.0

4.7

3.9

3.9

8.6

6.0

Tamaulipas

Soto la Marina

3.4

4.2

4.9

4.9

5.1

5.3

5.4

5.4

4.9

4.6

3.7

3.2

3.2

5.4

4.6

Tamaulipas

Tampico

3.3

4.1

4.7

6.4

5.0

4.9

4.9

4.9

4.6

4.6

3.7

3.2

3.2

6.4

4.5

Tlaxcala

Tlaxcala

4.6

5.1

5.5

5.4

5.6

5.2

5.3

5.2

5.1

4.9

4.7

4.0

4.0

5.6

5.1

Veracruz

Córdoba

3.1

3.3

3.6

3.8

4.1

4.4

4.6

4.5

4.1

3.5

3.1

2.8

2.8

4.6

3.7

Veracruz

Jalapa

3.2

3.5

3.8

4.3

4.6

4.4

4.9

5.0

4.4

3.7

3.3

3.0

3.0

5.0

4.0

Veracruz

Veracruz

3.7

4.5

4.9

5.1

5.1

4.8

4.7

5.1

4.6

4.8

4.1

3.6

3.6

5.1

4.6

Yucatán

Mérida

3.7

4.0

4.6

5.2

5.7

5.5

5.7

5.5

5.0

4.2

3.8

3.4

3.4

5.7

4.7

Yucatán

Progreso

4.1

4.9

5.4

5.5

5.3

5.1

5.3

5.3

5.0

5.0

4.4

4.0

4.0

5.5

4.9

Yucatán

Valladolid

3.7

4.1

3.1

5.4

5.7

5.3

5.4

5.4

4.9

4.2

3.8

3.5

3.1

5.7

4.5

Zacatecas

Zacatecas

4.9

5.7

6.6

7.5

7.8

6.2

6.2

5.9

5.4

4.8

4.8

4.1

4.1

7.8

5.8